The Middle Way

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5 Mindfulness Trainings – Thay Commentary

Excerpt titled “The Five Wonderful Mindfulness Trainings” by  Buddhism in the National Capital of Canada

Thich Nhat Hanh provides commentary on how the Five Wonderful Mindfulness Trainings can be used by anyone in today’s world to create a more harmonious and peaceful life.

The First Mindfulness Training:
Aware of the suffering caused by the destruction of life, I vow to cultivate compassion and learn ways to protect the lives of people, animals, plants and minerals.

Thich Nhat Hanh’s commentary on the 1st Precept.

The Second Mindfulness Training:
Aware of the suffering caused by exploitation, social injustice, stealing and oppression, I vow to cultivate loving kindness and learn ways to work for the well being of people, animals, plants and minerals.

Thich Nhat Hanh’s commentary on the 2nd Precept.

The Third Mindfulness Training:
Aware of the suffering caused by sexual misconduct, I vow to cultivate responsibility and learn ways to protect the safety and integrity of individuals, couples, families and society.

Thich Nhat Hanh has a commentary on the 3rd Precept.

The Fourth Mindfulness Training:
Aware of the suffering caused by unmindful speech and the inability to listen to others, I vow to cultivate loving speech and deep listening in order to bring joy and happiness to others and relieve others of their suffering.

Thich Nhat Hanh has a commentary on the 4th Precept.

The Fifth Mindfulness Training:
Aware of the suffering caused by unmindful consumption, I vow to cultivate good health, both physical and mental, for myself, my family, and my society by practicing mindful eating, drinking and consuming.

Thich Nhat Hanh has a commentary on the 5th Precept.

Excerpted from “For a Future to Be Possible: Commentaries on the Five Wonderful Precepts” (1993) by Thich Nhat Hanh, with permission of Parallax Press, Berkeley, California.)

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Mindfulness, Peace, and Service

Excerpt from Lion’s Roar A Buddhist Cop’s Approach to Justice by Cheri Maples

As part of my dharma teacher ordination ceremony in 2008, Thay and I exchanged gathas, or practice poems. I composed one for him and he composed one for me. Because of his tremendous influence on me as a police officer, I composed the following poem for him:

Breathing in, I know that mindfulness is the path to peace.
Breathing out, I know that peace is the path to mindfulness.
Breathing in, I know that peace is the path to justice.
Breathing out, I know that justice is the path to peace.
Breathing in, I know my duty is to provide safety & protection to all beings.
Breathing out, I am humbled and honored by my duty as a peace officer.
Breathing in, I choose mindfulness as my armor & compassion as my weapon.
Breathing out, I aspire to bring love and understanding to all I serve.

Often, when challenges arise, a handful of people can make a huge difference. Thich Nhat Hanh talks about the boat people who fled Vietnam in rickety boats during the war as an example of this. When the refugees had no food or water and faced the threat of pirates, those individuals who remained calm made the difference between life and death for everybody.

Any one of us can make a difference in a similar way as we move forward in the wake of tragedy. Any one of us can be the person who, rather than exacerbating pain and violence, transforms it by the way we bear witness and respond to it.

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Sanctuary

Words and Music by Carrie Newcomer
©2016 Carrie Newcomer Music (BMI), Administered by BMG Chrysalis

Will you be my refuge,
My haven in the storm,
Will you keep the embers warm,
When my fire’s all but gone?

Will you remember,
And bring me sprigs of rosemary,
Be my sanctuary,
’Til I can carry on
Carry on
Carry on.

This one knocked me to the ground,
This one dropped me to my knees,
I should have seen it coming,
But it surprised me.

Will you be my refuge,
My haven in the storm,
Will you keep the embers warm,
When my fire’s all but gone?

Will you remember,
And bring me sprigs of rosemary,
Be my sanctuary,
’Til I can carry on
Carry on
Carry on.

In a state of true believers,
On streets called us and them,
Its gonna take some time,
’Til the world feels safe again.

Will you be my refuge,
My haven in the storm,
Will you keep the embers warm,
When my fire’s all but gone?

Will you remember,
And bring me sprigs of rosemary,
Be my sanctuary,
’Til I can carry on
Carry on
Carry on.

You can rest here in Brown Chapel,
Or with a circle of friends,
Or quiet grove of trees,
Or between two bookends.

Will you be my refuge,
My haven in the storm,
Will you keep the embers warm,
When my fire’s all but gone?

Will you remember,
And bring me sprigs of rosemary,
Be my sanctuary,
’Til I can carry on
Carry on
Carry on.

This song was written after a conversation with my friend Parker J. Palmer.
I asked him, “What can we do when we are personally or politically
heartbroken?” He responded, “We take sanctuary. We gather with those we
love, in places like Brown Chapel. We remember, we share stories or we sit
in silence until we can go on.” –Carrie Newcomer

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Mindfulness of Breathing

Blog post from Plum Blossum Sangha titled “Mindfulness of Breathing – Anapanasati”

Mindfulness can be described as a kind of energy that helps us be aware of what is going in within us and around us or the practice of moment to moment observation of the present moment with a non-judgmental, non-discriminative mind. While the practice is simple and clear enough, there are numerous objects that we can observe and some difficulties may come up in the process of observation. The exercises below can help us learn the art and science of mindfulness practice. They guide us towards helpful directions to place our mindfulness – for example our breathing as well as the body, feelings, mind or objects of mind. They help us widen our mindfulness practice toolkit to be able to practice in a variety of situations. They provide a useful framework for growing our mindfulness practice over the long-run. Conveniently, the first four of sixteen exercises below are focused on developing awareness of the body (and breath), the second on awareness of our feelings, the third on awareness of our mind, and last on awareness of our mind-objects.

I

1. Recognizing in-breath and out-breath, “Breathing in, I am aware I am breathing in.” ”Breathing out, I am aware that I am breathing out.”

We can begin the practice by simply bringing our attention to our breathing. We can do so by for instance placing our attention at the tip of our nose, the area around the nostrils and upper lip, and noticing the air going in and the air going out, identifying in-breath as in-brath and out-breath as out-breath. We can watch the air going by the tip as it goes in and then out, like a guard making a note of everyone entering and leaving a building. We can also place our attention in the abdomen area, a couple of inches below the navel. This can be a particularly helpful to focus on to quieten our mind or to slow down our thinking.  Of course it may be difficult to practice mindfulness of breathing for long. Distractions may come up. If they do we simply make a note of the distraction, smile to it and come back to observing our breathing. In each moment there are many things going on, by focusing on our breathing we direct our attention to a place of groundedness and solidity.  In practicing this exercise please remember to not force the breathing in any way. In practicing with a non-judgmental mind, it essential to observe things as they are and that includes our breathing.

2. Following the breath, “Breathing in a long breath, I know I am breathing in a long breathe. Breathing out, I know I am breathing out a long breath.“

This will vary depending on what we notice about our breathing – our breath can be long, short, deep, easy, uneasy, etc. We simply notice the characteristics of our breath and as mentioned in the previous instruction we observe the in and out breath from the beginning to the end. Some helpful practices to build some concentration on following our breath are to count our breath.  For example, as we breathe in we can say one, and as we breathe one. We continue in this way till we get to ten and then count back towards one. Every time we lose our attention we go back to one. Another counting practice is to count the length of in-breath and out-breath. For example, breathing in we may count till 2 and breathing out we may count till 4. We simply notice how long or short our breathing is without forcing it any way.

3. Awareness of body, “Breathing in, I am aware of my body. Breathing out, I smile to my body.”

We can begin with a general awareness of the body and then bring attention to different parts of our body or the different elements with which our body is composed of or the positions of our body – whether we are sitting, walking, lying down, washing dishes, etc and the process of change occurring in our body. For instance, we can be aware of and smile to our feet, calves, knees, thighs, hips, back, stomach, small intestines, large intestines, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, bladder, your throat, face, head, hair and brain.

The practice of recognizing and smiling is critical. It is the heart of mindfulness practice, of non-judgmentally observing what is there in the present moment and not reacting to it. By practicing being aware of our body in this way we train ourselves to observe with mindfulness our feelings, mental formations, perceptions and consciousness.

4. Calming the body, “Breathing in, I am aware of my body. Breathing out, I calm the activities of my whole body and release any tension in my body.”

In the practicing the previous three exercise we can already perhaps begin to feel calmer. This thus follows naturally from the previous exercises. We can invite all the cells in our body to participate with this exercise or we can be as specific as we want. For example, we can say, “Breathing in, I am aware of my brain. Breathing out, I calm the activities of my brain.” There is also often a lot of tension accumulated in our body that we have not embraced or noticed. In calming the releasing the accumulated tension, we allow the healing process to begin.

II

5. Cultivating joy, Breathing in I am aware of the energy of  joy. Breathing out, I smile to the energy of joy.”

The Buddha often advised his practitioners to cultivate some strength particularly energies of joy and happiness before exploring or being with difficult feelings and emotions. Exercise five and six are here to intentionally recognize the energies of joy and happiness already present in us or nourish these energies in us. Joy and happiness may have arisen from simply practicing the previous four exercises, or we may notice the presence of these energies from other sources. This exercise is to help actively build the reservoir of solidity and stability and happiness in us.

6. Cultivating happiness, “Breathing in, I am aware of the energy of happiness in me. Breathing out, I smile to the energy of happiness.”

7. Recognizing difficult feelings, Breathing in, I am aware of a feeling present in me (pleasant, unpleasant & neutral). Breathing out, I smile to the feeling present in me.”

With the previous two exercises we looked at some of the pleasant feelings in us. This exercise allows us to explore some unpleasant or feelings that may be also present in us. This exercise is similar to the third exercise in that we have an opportunity to become aware of and smile to the wide range of feelings present in us. We give attention to the feelings that we may have neglected or been scared to look at head on but we do so with great love and non-violence towards the feelings. We can become aware of the arising, duration and fading of all pleasant, unpleasant and neutral feelings. We can also look deeply into them if we are strong enough, observing the psychological, physiological and physical roots and the impacts of our feelings on our mind, health and so on. We simply recognize and smile.

8. Calming feelings“Breathing in, I calm my feelings. Breathing out, I calm my feelings.”

Similar to the fourth exercise, with this exercise we can begin to calm or even release our feelings. With the previous exercise we practiced being with the feeling, accepting the feeling as it is with non-violence and love. With this exercise, after a period of being with the feeling we can begin to calm it and release it. Just as a mother calms a crying baby, we can also embrace our feelings, acknowledge their presence and gently calm them.

III

9. “Breathing in, I am aware of my mind. Breathing out, I am aware of my mind.”

We become aware of our mind. In the Sutra on Four Establishments of Mindfulness the Buddha recommends we practice in this way:

“When his mind is desiring, the practitioner is aware, ‘My mind is desiring.’

When is mind is not desiring, he is aware, ‘My mind is not desiring.’

When his mind is hating something, he is aware, ‘My mind is hating.’ When his mind is not hating, he is aware, ‘My mind is not hating.’

When his mind is in a state of ignorance, he is aware, ‘My mind is in a state of ignorance.’ When his mind is not in a state of ignorance, he is aware, ‘My mind is not in a state of ignorance.’

When his mind is tense, he is aware, ‘My mind is tense.’  When his mind is not tense, he is aware, ‘My mind is not tense.’

When his mind is distracted, he is aware, ‘My mind is distracted. When his mind is not distracted, he is aware, ‘My mind is not distracted.’

When his mind has a wider scope, he is aware, ‘My mind has widened in scope.’ When his mind has a narrow scope, he is aware, ‘My mind has become narrow in scope.’

When his mind is capable of reaching a higher state, he is aware, ‘My mind is capable of reaching a higher state.’ When his mind is not capable of reaching a higher sate, he is aware, ‘My mind is not capable of reaching a higher state.’

When his mind is composed, he is aware, ‘My mind is composed.’ When his mind is not composed, he is aware, ‘My mind is not composed.’

When his mind is free, he is aware, ‘My mind is free.’ When his mind is not free, he is aware, ‘My mind is not free.’ ”

10. “Breathing in, I make my mind happy. Breathing out, I make my mind happy.”

Here we have an opportunity to simply recall pleasant mind-states, again to nourish the ‘wholesome’ energies in us. This could include observing current conditions in your life that area already giving you happiness or happy memories.

11. “Breathing in,  I skillfully concentrate my mind. Breathing out, I skillfully concentrate my mind.”

This exercise and then next are to help us look deeply into the nature of reality to help us better understand our difficulties. There are many aspects we can concentrate our mind on such as interbeing, non-self, impermanence and compassion.  More on this here.

12. “Breathing in, I skillfully liberate my mind. Breathing out, I skillfully liberate my mind.”

IV

13. “Breathing in, I observe objects of my mind. Breathing out, I observe the objects of my mind.”

We have opportunities here to look deeply into our different notions, perceptions and concepts including:

  • Man
  • Enlightened person
  • Living being
  • Life span
  • Birth, death
  • Being, non-being
  • Coming, going
  • Sameness, otherness (superior, inferior, equality)

14. “Breathing in, I observe my attachments and unwholesome desires. Breathing out, I observe the dangers of my attachments and unwholesome desires.”

15. “Breathing in, I observe the no-birth, no-death nature of objects of mind. Breathing out, I observe the no-birth, no-death nature of objects of mind.”

16. “Breathing in, I observe letting go. Breathing out, I observe letting go.”

Based on the Sutra on Full Awareness of Breathing an Sutra on Four Establishments of Mindfulness. For a more in depth guide please refer to the following texts:

Thich Nhat Hanh, Breathe! You are alive: Sutra on the Full Awareness of Breathing, (Berkeley, Calif.: Parallax Press, 1988).

Thich Nhat Hanh, Transformation & Healing: Sutra on the Four Establishments of Mindfulness, (Berkeley, Calif.: Parallax Press, 1990).

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The art of suffering well

From No Mud, No Lotus: The Art of Transforming Suffering by Thich Nhat Hanh 

We all want to be happy and there are many books and teachers in the world that try to help people be happier. Yet we all continue to suffer.

Therefore, we may think that we’re “doing it wrong.” Somehow we are “failing at happiness.” That isn’t true. Being able to enjoy happiness doesn’t require that we have zero suffering. In fact, the art of happiness is also the art of suffering well. When we learn to acknowledge, embrace, and understand our suffering, we suffer much less. Not only that, but we’re also able to go further and transform our suffering into understanding, compassion, and joy for ourselves and for others.

One of the most difficult things for us to accept is that there is no realm where there’s only happiness and there’s no suffering. This doesn’t mean that we should despair. Suffering can be transformed. As soon as we open our mouth to say “suffering,” we know that the opposite of suffering is already there as well. Where there is suffering, there is happiness.

According to the creation story in the biblical book of Genesis, God said, “Let there be light.” I like to imagine that light replied, saying, “God, I have to wait for my twin brother, darkness, to be with me. I can’t be there without the darkness.” God asked, “Why do you need to wait? Darkness is there.” Light answered, “In that case, then I am also already there.”

If we focus exclusively on pursuing happiness, we may regard suffering as something to be ignored or resisted. We think of it as something that gets in the way of happiness. But the art of happiness is also the art of knowing how to suffer well. If we know how to use our suffering, we can transform it and suffer much less. Knowing how to suffer well is essential to realizing true happiness.

Healing Medicine

The main affliction of our modern civilization is that we don’t know how to handle the suffering inside us and we try to cover it up with all kinds of consumption. Retailers peddle a plethora of devices to help us cover up the suffering inside. But unless and until we’re able to face our suffering, we can’t be present and available to life, and happiness will continue to elude us.

There are many people who have enormous suffering, and don’t know how to handle it. For many people, it starts at a very young age. So why don’t schools teach our young people the way to manage suffering? If a student is very unhappy, he can’t concentrate and he can’t learn. The suffering of each of us affects others. The more we learn about the art of suffering well, the less suffering there will be in the world.

Mindfulness is the best way to be with our suffering without being overwhelmed by it. Mindfulness is the capacity to dwell in the present moment, to know what’s happening in the here and now. For example, when we’re lifting our two arms, we’re conscious of the fact that we’re lifting our arms. Our mind is with our lifting of our arms, and we don’t think about the past or the future, because lifting our arms is what’s happening in the present moment.

To be mindful means to be aware. It’s the energy that knows what is happening in the present moment. Lifting our arms and knowing that we’re lifting our arms—that’s mindfulness, mindfulness of our action. When we breathe in and we know we’re breathing in, that’s mindfulness. When we make a step and we know that the steps are taking place, we are mindful of the steps. Mindfulness is always mindfulness of something. It’s the energy that helps us be aware of what is happening right now and right here—in our body, in our feelings, in our perceptions, and around us.

With mindfulness, you can recognize the presence of the suffering in you and in the world. And it’s with that same energy that you tenderly embrace the suffering. By being aware of your in-breath and out-breath you generate the energy of mindfulness, so you can continue to cradle the suffering. Practitioners of mindfulness can help and support each other in recognizing, embracing, and transforming suffering. With mindfulness we are no longer afraid of pain. We can even go further and make good use of suffering to generate the energy of understanding and compassion that heals us and we can help others to heal and be happy as well.

Generating Mindfulness

The way we start producing the medicine of mindfulness is by stopping and taking a conscious breath, giving our complete attention to our in-breath and our out-breath. When we stop and take a breath in this way, we unite body and mind and come back home to ourselves. We feel our bodies more fully. We are truly alive only when the mind is with the body. The great news is that oneness of body and mind can be realized just by one in-breath. Maybe we have not been kind enough to our body for some time. Recog-nizing the tension, the pain, the stress in our body, we can bathe it in our mindful awareness, and that is the beginning of healing.

If we take care of the suffering inside us, we have more clarity, energy, and strength to help address the suffering of our loved ones, as well as the suffering in our community and the world. If, however, we are preoccupied with the fear and despair in us, we can’t help remove the suffering of others. There is an art to suffering well. If we know how to take care of our suffering, we not only suffer much, much less, we also create more happiness around us and in the world.

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Don’t Always Trust Your Perceptions

Excerpt of “Touching Peace: Practicing the Art of Mindful Living” by Thich Nhat Hanh

Breathing in, I see myself as still water.
Breathing out, I reflect things as they are.

Near the mountain, there is a lake with clear, still water reflecting the mountain and the sky with pristine clarity. You can do the same. If you are calm and still enough, you can reflect the mountain, the blue sky, and the moon exactly as they are. You reflect whatever you see exactly as it is, without distorting anything.

Have you ever seen yourself in a mirror that distorts the image? Your face is long, your eyes are huge, and your legs are really short. Don’t be like that mirror. It is better to be like the still water on the mountain lake.

We often do not reflect things clearly, and we suffer because of our wrong perceptions. Suppose you are walking in the twilight and see a snake. You scream and run into the house to get your friends, and all of you run outside with a flashlight. But when you shine your light on the snake, you discover that it isn’t a snake at all, just a piece of rope. This is a distorted perception.

When we see things or listen to other people, we often don’t see clearly or really listen. We see and hear our projections and our prejudices. We are not clear enough, and we have a wrong perception. Even if our friend is giving us a compliment, we may argue with him because we distort what he says.

If we are not calm, if we only listen to our hopes or our anger, we will not be able to receive the truth that is trying to reflect itself on our lake. We need to make our water still if we want to receive reality as it is. If you feel agitated, don’t do or say anything. Just breathe in and out until you are calm enough. Then ask your friend to repeat what he has said. This will avoid a lot of damage. Stillness is the foundation of understanding and insight. Stillness is strength.

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